Dinamika Hukum Keluarga Islam dan Isu Gender di Iran: Antara Pemikiran Elit Sekuler dan Ulama Islam


This article examines the dynamics of family law in the Islamic Republic of Iran where there are upheavals and struggles between the secular elites and ulama from 1927 to the present day. This study applied a library research by digging up information related to the theme of the study. The results of this study indicate that the Islamic Republic of Iran is dominantly Shia Imamiyyah (Jafari) but it also accommodates the Hanafi (Sunni) School in the field of marriage law. Iranian family law has gone through many changes. Since 1928 the issue of divorce and marriage which was originally regulated in Irans Qanun Madani came into force in 1930, the Marriage Law was then enacted in 1931. After three decades, in 1967 there was a reformation, the Marriage Law was replaced by the Family Protection act, then it was replaced with the Protection of Family in 1975. These laws are a combination of Islamic Law and French civil Jurisprudence, though they seem more secular. However, since the Iranian Revolution in 1979, these laws have been abolished and all laws in Iran have been returned to sharia law. As a result, the laws become repressive against women, except in the field of inheritance which provides gender equality. While there have been many highly educated women in Iran, since 2006 many women have filed for divorce. On the other hand, the practice of mutah marriage has begun to be abandoned and polygamy is opposed by the community.