Epistemologi Tindakan Muhammad Iqbal
This paper highlights Muhammad Iqbal’s epistemology which focuses on the question of metaphysic and ontology. Iqbal starts from an intuition about human beings’ ego engaged at the absolute ego's reality to understand the absolute being. Intuition can reveal the absolute reality or the real superego. The real existence of reality is spiritual. The true reality, according to Iqbal, refers to the existence of God, man and nature. However, the real existence of reality is a manifestation of the absolute reality. It is an absolute being or an absolute ego. Intuition about self itself brings man to the intuition of ultimo reality. Iqbal’s epistemology of self (ego) is essentially talking about the philosophy of the human that focuses on self or ego. Self or ego is the starting point for Iqbal to relate between God and nature. Life in the universe, according to Iqbal, is a series of actions. All of these are for the benefit of mankind as a co-creator through meaningful action. The meaningful action is a foundation of human existence in manifesting himself. Iqbal formulates this meaningful action as a manifestation of the way the human utilizes to face the other's reality. To Iqbal, meaningful action is charged with the ontological-religious content that emphasizes Islam's fundamental spiritual aspect with the term ‘amal (noble conduct). To him, meaningful action will always be imprinted in people’s lives and only the meaningful action alone that can help people prepare themselves to face the destruction of their bodies.