As a form of freedom of speech and establishing an organization, the discourse about the caliphate has lately resurfaced. As a concept, the caliphate began to appear after the prophetic era. This concept evolved somewhat in line with the dynamics of power and thought in Islamic world. This paper seeks to explore the ideas and dialectic courses of Ibn Hazm with the dynamics of the Islamic caliphate in Andalusia. He recorded historical facts, formulated theoretical outlines and plunge directly into the process of maintaining the caliph. Historical data of Caliphate transition either through “al-Khilafah” or succession and “al-Wilayah” or appointment, according to Ibn Hazm, must be based on the guiding principle of leadership (al-Imamate) in Islam. Ibn Hazm’s idea turned out to collide with the process of power transition, away from the ideal formulas he has composed. The reality of Ibn Hazm is the the tension between al-syari’ah and al-siyāsah.