The Dynamic of Islamic Theology in Indonesia
Classic Islamic theologies which focus on the study of monotheism, God’s substances, characteristics, justice, promises and threats, throne, iman, kufr, fasiq, and shirk are believed to be in its stagnancy. Since they are theocentric-oriented, they cannot appropriately solve contemporary problems. They are dominated by some political interests, so that they become more subjective. Therefore, it is essential to establish a more grounded soluble theo-anthropocentric-oriented theology which can thoroughly solve social problems. Indonesian Islamic Scholars offer fifteen theological varieties, namely, rational theology, transformative theology, pluralism theology, harmony theology, renewal theology, dynamic theology, social theology, Islamic contemporary theology, applied theology, oppressed group theology, negative theology, Islamic political theology, economical theology, educational theology, and reading theology. Indeed, two significant notices can be revealed. First, some new theological varieties-Abdurrahman’s transformative theology and Madjid’s pluralism theology are introduced but they are implicitly written in title of their works. Second, some theological formulations criticize the former theologies, Indonesian Muslim’s life, and conventional economic conditions which bring about more striking theological formulations.