SHARI’A, INDIGENOUS WISDOM AND HUMAN RIGHTS: A Brief Review of Human Rights Enforcement in the Context of Indonesian History
This article deals with the analysis of how human rights discourses have been articulated in the landscape of Indonesia’s history. The paper argues that the idea of Shari’aization can undermine the search for the common ground in building the discourses of human rights. The history of Indonesia can be classified into three eras: pre-colonial, post-colonial and reform era. Along the history, the spirit of human rights enforcement grows from, and interacts with, Islam and local culture. The language and expression take various forms in accordance with socio-cultural contexts and challenges. However, the essence of the enforcement is rooted in the universal values: freedom from oppression, fear, discrimination and gender inequality. In the future, smart dialogue, sharp debate and sincere discussion between ‘local’ symbolic expression and universal standardization are still needed. In addition, the gap can be narrowed also by responding actual violation of human right as it is indicated by Indonesian history: history of social consensus.