SOEHARTO AND THE POLITICIZATION OF INDONESIAN ISLAM (1968-1998)
Soeharto treated Indonesian Muslim Communities with two different ways. On the one side, he has given them full freedom to conduct Islamic rituals such as prayers, almsgivings, fasting during Ramadhan, pilgrim and so on. On the other side, however, he has not given them full freedom to exercise politics at the practical level because it would raise problems in the long run. He handled their political activities tightly. Therefore he put whatever efforts necessary to safeguard his power interests such as launching Pancasila as the sole basis (asas tunggal) for all political parties and mass organizations, merging four Islamic political parties into one party, PPP and so on. After more than 30 years he conducted the politicization of Islam, the big mutiny and turbulences happened everywhere which was supported by all university students and caused the fall of his power in 1998 with sad ending and Indonesian reform era started.