Tuning of PID Controller Parameters with Genetic Algorithm Method on DC Motor


Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers are used in general to control a system, for example a DC motor system. The difficulty of using the controller is parameter tuning, because the tuning parameters still use the trial and error method to find the PID parameter constants, namely Proportional Gain (KP), Integral Gain (KI) and Derivative Gain (KD). In this case, the genetic algorithm method is used which can give better results in each iteration. Genetic algorithms are one of the smart methods inspired by the process of natural selection, the process that causes biological evolution, this concept is applied to tuning PID parameters. This research uses the Matlab simulation method and applies the simulation results to the DC motor hardware using the Arduino Uno. The genetic algorithm method gives a system that has a better steady time and a smaller maximum spike than the Trial and Error method. The test process produced the two best data with an overshoot value = 2, settling time = 13.5 and rise time of 2.7872 and the PID parameter value for mutation of 1 was KP = 3.7500; KI = 1.3184 and KD = 0.2051. Then the value of the best PID parameter on Crossover is 0.4, which is KP = 4.2090; KI = 1.2012 and KD = 0.2539 with an overshoot value = 2, settling time = 18 and rise time = 2.6462.